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Monday, 5 August 2013

Glenn Fulcher and Fred Davidson. Language Testing and Assessment - Download

Reviewed by Zaenal Arifin
Tulungagung, 5 August 2013

Buku yang saya share kali ini masih berbau tentang bahasa Inggris, khusunya tentang pendidikan, spesifik lagi ke language assessment. Language assessment itu apa? Dalam bahasa yang singkat saya bingung harus menerjemahkannya bagaimana, yang jelas buku ini membahas banyak hal tentang tes, atau ujian, atau penilaian, terkait kompetensi bahasa sesorang (atau bisa juga disebut siswa).

Buku ini agak berbeda dengan Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practice karya H. Douglas Brown (jangan dibaca Haji Douglas Brown, ya). Bila Douglas Brown mendeskripsikan language assessment secara mendasar, Glenn disini lebih menjabarkan hal-hal detail yang lalu disajikan dalam bentuk penjelasan-penjelasan rinci yang terkait dengan language assessment.

Pembahasan dalam buku ini sendiri sebenarnya telah tercermin dalam sub-judul bukunya, Language Testing and Assessment: An Advanced Resource Book, dimana kata 'advanced' tersebut menurut saya bisa difungsikan sebagai possessive modifier (artinya: buku bagi kalangan ahli) yang lalu diartikan bahwa buku ini diperuntukkan bagi kalangan ahli atau expert dalam bidang language assessment. Atau, kata 'advanced' tersebut bisa juga difungsikan sebagai modifier langsung yang menyifati "Resource Book", sehingga bisa ditafsirkan bahwa buku ini adalah buku yang membahas language assessment dalam tataran pembahasan tingkat tinggi (atau tingkat ahli).

Mau ditafsirkan bagaiman pun, menurut saya akan tetap lebih optimal dalam memahami apabila pembaca telah mengetahui hal-hal dasar terkait dengan language assessment.

Berikut saya sertakan pula contents atau daftar isi dari Glenn Fulcher and Fred Davidson. Language Testing and Assessment untuk lebih memberikan gambaran dalamnya.

Unit A1 Introducing validity
A1.1 Introduction
A1.2 Three ‘types’ of validity in early theory
A1.3 Cutting the validity cake

Unit A2 Classroom assessment
A2.1 Introduction
A2.2 Pedagogy and the measurement paradigm

Unit A3 Constructs and models
A3.1 Introduction
A3.2 The nature of models
A3.3 Canale and Swain’s model of communicative competence
A3.4 Canale’s adaptations
A3.5 Bachman’s model of communicative language ability (CLA)
A3.6 Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei and Thurrell’s model of communicative competence
A3.7 Interactional competence
A3.8 From models to frameworks: validity models and performance conditions

Unit A4 Test specifications and designs
A4.1 Introduction
A4.2 Planning in test authoring
A4.3 Guiding language versus samples
A4.4 Congruence (or fit-to-spec)
A4.5 How do test questions originate? Reverse engineering and archetypes
A4.6 Reverse engineering
A4.7 Where do test items come from? What is the true genesis of a test question?
A4.8 Spec-driven test assembly, operation and maintenance
A4.9 Towards spec-driven theory

Unit A5 Writing items and tasks
A5.1 Introduction
A5.2 Evidence-centred design (ECD)
A5.3 Describing items and tasks
A5.4 Tasks and teaching

Unit A6 Prototypes, prototyping and field tests
A6.1 Introduction
A6.2 Prototypes
A6.3 Prototyping
A6.4 Field testing
A6.5 The iterative nature of the process

Unit A7 Scoring language tests and assessments
A7.1 Introduction
A7.2 Defining the quality of language
A7.3 Developing scoring systems
A7.4 Intuition and data
A7.5 Problems with scales
A7.6 Scoring in classical test theory
A7.7 Reliability
A7.8 Score transformations
A7.9 Item response theory
A7.10 Endowing a score with special meaning

Unit A8 Administration and training
A8.1 Introduction
A8.2 Getting things done
A8.3 Quality management systems
A8.4 Constraints
A8.5 Test administration within the ECD delivery model
A8.6 Rater and interlocutor training
A8.7 Security
A8.8 Test administration for disabled people

Unit A9 Fairness, ethics and standards
A9.1 Introduction
A9.2 Professionalism as a community of practitioners
A9.3 Professionalism and democracy
A9.4 Consequentialism
A9.5 On power and pessimism
A9.6 Professional conduct: standards for practice
A9.7 Responsibilities of language testers and their limitations
A9.8 Accountability

Unit A10 Arguments and evidence in test validation and use
A10.1 Introduction
A10.2 Argumentation as solution
A10.3 The form of an argument
A10.4 Argument in evidence-centred design
A10.5 Arguments in language testing
A10.6 Arguments and feasibility
A10.7 Argument, evidence and ethics

Unit B1 Construct validity
Cronbach, L. J. and Meehl, P. E. ‘Construct validity in psychological tests’

Unit B2 Pedagogic assessment
Moss, P. ‘Reconceptualizing validity for classroom assessment’

Unit B3 Investigating communicative competence
Canale, M. and Swain, M. ‘Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing’

Unit B4 Optimal specification design
Davidson, F. and Lynch, B. K. Testcraft: A Teacher’s Guide to Writing and Using Language Test Specifications

Unit B5 Washback
Alderson, J. C. and Wall, D. ‘Does washback exist?’

Unit B6 Researching prototype tasks
Cumming, A., Grant, L., Mulcahy-Ernt, P. and Powers, D. A Teacher-Verification Study of Speaking and Writing Prototype Tasks for a New TOEFL

Unit B7 Scoring performance tests
Hamp-Lyons, L. ‘Scoring procedures for ESL contexts’

Unit B8 Interlocutor training and behavior
Brown, A. ‘Interviewer variation and the co-construction of speaking proficiency’

Unit B9 Ethics and professionalism
Davies, A. ‘Demands of being professional in language testing’

Unit B10 Validity as argument
Kane, M. T. (1992). ‘An argument-based approach to validity’

Unit C1 Validity – an exploration
Unit C2 Assessment in school systems
Unit C3 What do items really test?
Unit C4 Evolution in action
Unit C5 To see a test in a grain of sand...
Unit C6 Analysing items and tasks
Unit C7 Designing an alternative matrix
Unit C8 Administration and alignment
Unit C9 In a time far, far away...
Unit C10 To boldly go

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